Neurology and Neuropsychiatry
Theme: Brain and Mental Health: Exploring the Intersection of Neurology and Psychiatry
Venue: Renaissance London Heathrow Hotel
A type of disease within cells of the CNS cease functioning or die. The cells of the brain are jointly linked and miscommunications in one region may disrupt further brain functions, explaining that brain disorders can consequence in widespread issues. Even though there are numerous illnesses and diseases that can influence the brain, the most complex of these diseases are called neurodegenerative diseases. These diseases can influence an individual’s movement, speech, memory, intelligence, and much more. As neurodegenerative diseases are so complex, the root of various diseases remain a question. Neurodegenerative disorders generally get adverse over time and have no heal. They may be genetic or be caused by a malignancy or stroke. They also occur in persons who consume huge quantity of alcohol or are exposed to certain viruses or toxins.
The body’s reaction to intellectual, physical or psychological pressure. Stress leads to chemical alteration in the body that will increase blood glucose volume, heart rate and blood pressure. It may further lead to feelings of anger, anxiety, frustration or depression. Stress may be originated by usual life activities or by an incident, such as injury or illness. Long-term stress or high levels of stress may lead to mental and physical health problems.
Some of the more common symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases include:
A loss of inhibition
It is a neurodegenerative disease that generally starts slowly and gently worsens over time. It is the main cause of dementia. The most common early symptom is struggling in remembering recent events. As the disease progress, symptoms can include problems with language, disorientation (including easily getting lost), mood swings, loss of motivation, self-neglect, and behavioral issues.
It is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mostly affects the motor system. The symptoms usually appear slowly and, as the disease worsens, non-motor symptoms become more common. The most obvious early symptoms are tremor, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking.
Neuropharmacology is the study of how drugs modify cellular function in the nervous system, and the neural mechanisms through which they oppress behavior. There are two main branches of neuropharmacology: behavioral and molecular. Behavioral neuropharmacology concentrate on the study of how drugs affect human behavior (neuropsychopharmacology), including the study of how drug dependence and addiction influence the human brain. Molecular neuropharmacology contains the study of neurons and their neurochemical interactions, with the overall goal of developing drugs that have beneficial effects on neurological function.
Neurochemistry is the study of chemicals, involving neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psych pharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that control and influence the physiology of the nervous system.
The Intellectual Basis: Neurobiology is concerned with, unveiling the biological mechanisms by which nervous systems mediate behavior. The MBB Track in Neuroscience (formerly Neurobiology) is planned to provide students with the tools to study nervous systems biologically from molecules to behavior. Neuroscientists focus on the brain and its effect on behavior and cognitive functions, or how people think. They also examine what happens to the nervous system when people have neurological, psychiatric, and neurodevelopmental disorders.
Pediatric neurology or child neurology relates to a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of neurological conditions in neonates (newborns), infants, children and adolescents. The department of child neurology encloses diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, muscles and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups.
Metabolic diseases affecting the nervous system
Pediatric sleep disorders
Developmental disorders including autism
Pediatric neuromuscular disorders including muscular dystrophy and congenital myopathies
Neurological complications of other pediatric diseases
Epilepsy is a class of neurological disorders categorized by recurrent epileptic seizures. Epileptic seizures are episodes that can differ from shortened and nearly undetectable periods to long periods of vigorous shaking. These episodes can develop in physical injuries, including frequently broken bones. In epilepsy, seizures have a tendency to recur and, as a rule, have no immediate proving cause. Isolated seizures that are arouse by a specific cause such as poisoning are not deemed to represent epilepsy.
Generalized onset seizures
Focal onset seizures
Unknown onset seizures
Biology of Aging:
Aging can be defined as the time-related deterioration of the physiological functions compulsory, for survival and fertility. The characteristics of aging as distinguished from diseases of aging (such as cancer and heart disease) affect all the individuals of a species. Mortality can be used to define biological ageing, which refers to an organism’s increased rate of death as it progresses throughout its lifecycle and increases its chronological age.
Free Radical Theory
Membrane Theory of Aging
Neurogenesis is the process by which nervous system cells, the neurons, are produced by neural stem cells (NSCs). It take place in all species of animals except the porifera (sponges) and placozoans. Types of NSCs include neuroepithelial cells (NECs), radial glial cells (RGCs), basal progenitors (BPs), intermediate neuronal precursors (INPs), subventricular zone astrocytes, and sub granular zone radial astrocytes, among others.
Psychology is the study of mind and behavior. It encompasses the biological influences, social pressures, and environmental factors that affect how people think, act, and feel. Psychology may be a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such areas as human development, sports, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
The Major Branches of Psychology are:
Cell biology is that the study of cell structure and performance, and it revolves round the concept that the cell is that the fundamental unit of life. that specialize in the cell permits an in depth understanding of the tissues and organisms that cells compose. Cell biology encompasses both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and may be divided into many sub-topics which can include the study of cell metabolism, cell communication, cell cycle, biochemistry, and cell composition. The study of cells is performed using several techniques like cell culture, various sorts of microscopy, and cell fractionation.
Branches of cell biology:
Molecular biology, including molecular replication, modification, mechanisms and interactions, is the branch of biology that involves the molecular basis of biological behavior in and between cells. The fundamental dogma of molecular biology explains the process in which DNA is transcribed into RNA, then converted into protein.
Subdisciplines of Molecular Biology:
1) Comparative Genomics
2) DNA Forensics
3) Functional Genomics
4) Gene Therapy
6) Molecular Genetics
Molecular neuroscience is a branch which monitors concepts in molecular biology integrated to the nervous systems of animals. The scope of the topic includes subjects like mechanisms of molecular signaling in the nervous system, molecular neuroanatomy, the effects of genetics and epigenetics on neuronal development, and the molecular basis for neuroplasticity and neurodegenerative diseases. As with molecular biology, molecular neuroscience is a relatively new field that is considerably dynamic.
Neurodegeneration is the gradual loss of structure or function of neurons, including their death. Many neurodegenerative diseases includes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and prion diseases occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes. Such diseases are incurable, resulting in progressive degeneration of neurons.
Any disorder, disease, or pathological condition affecting the brain (e.g., tumor, stroke, traumatic injury). Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. Pathology highlights elements of disease: Source, methods of growth (pathogenesis), structural changes of cells (morphologic changes), and the result of alterations (clinical manifestations).
Oncology is the learning of spinal cord neoplasms and brain, most of which are (at least eventually) highly terrifying and life-dangerous (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the most examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.
Neurological disorders are medicinally described as disorders that affect the brain as well as the nerves found all over the human body and the spinal cord. Structural, biochemical or electrical deformity in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can grow in to a range of symptoms. Examples of symptoms comprise disappearance of sense, muscle frailty, paralysis, seizures, substandard coordination, pain, confusion and altered levels of responsiveness.
Stroke is the sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood flow or burst of an artery to the brain. Sudden loss of speech, weakness, or paralysis of one side of the body can be symptoms.
Migraines and Headaches
Clinical Trails & Case Reports
Cavernous & Arteriovenous malformations
Transient ischemic attack
Causes of Stroke
Therapeutics of Stroke
Vascular Malformations of Brain and Spinal Cord
Carotid stenosis and Cerebral aneurysms
Ophthalmology is a discipline in surgery and medicine that handles with the identification and therapy of eye diseases. It is an exciting surgical specialty that encompasses many different subspecialties, including: Strabismus/pediatric ophthalmology, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, retina/uveitis, anterior segment/cornea, oculoplastic/orbit, and ocular oncology.
Visual Neuroscience is a discipline in neuroscience which highlights on the visual structure of the human anatomy, specially found in the brain’s visual cortex. The main goal of visual neuroscience is to understand how neural activity results in visual perception, as well as behaviors dependent on vision.
It is the destruction or declension of brain cells. Brain injuries occur due to a large range of internal and external factors. In common, brain injury refers to consequential, undiscriminating trauma-induced destruction, while neurotoxicity typically mentions selective, chemically produced neuron injury.
Behavioral neuroscience, also called as biological psychology, biopsychology, or psychobiology, is the implementation of the principles of biology to the study of physiological, genetic, and developmental mechanisms of behavior in humans and other animals.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty involved with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any part of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, central and peripheral nervous system, and cerebrovascular system. Back pain can sometimes produce neurological symptoms such as numbness, muscle weakness, and loss of bowel and bladder control due to dysfunction at the nerve root.
Spine surgery procedures:
Traditional Lumbar Fusion
Molecular genetics is a subdivision of biology that addresses how differences in the structures or expression of DNA molecules manifests as variation among organisms. Molecular genetics frequently applies an “investigative approach” to determine the structure and/or function of genes in an organism’s genome using genetic screens. The field of study is based on the combination of several sub-fields in biology: classical Mendelian inheritance, cellular biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology.
Neurobiology is the study of the nervous system and how the brain works. The field studies nervous system functions, brain function and the related structures such as the spinal cord. Neurobiology is a subcategory of both neuroscience and physiology. It is a sub discipline of the life sciences that handles with the anatomy, pathology and physiology of the nervous system.
Acute central nervous system (CNS) injuries consist (of) stroke, traumatic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Early brain injury is a main cause of disability and death for patients of stroke or traumatic brain injury. The procedure of initial brain damage after stroke and trauma are compound, and endure imperfectly understood. Spinal cord injury damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal often causes permanent changes in strength, sensation and additional body tasks below the place of the trauma.
It associates to the regrowth or repair of nervous tissues, cells or cell products. Such mechanisms may include generation of new neurons, glia, axons, myelin, or synapses. Neurodegeneration differs between the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS) by the functional mechanisms involved, especially in the extent and speed of repair. If an axon is injured, the distal segment will undergo Wallerian degeneration, misplacing its myelin sheath. The primal segment can either die by apoptosis or undergo the chromatolysis reaction, which is an attempt at repair. In the Central Nervous System, synaptic stripping happens as glial foot procedures invade the deceased synapse.
Inhibition is the process whereby nerves can retard or prevent the functioning of an organ or part. The electrical activity elicited in a neuron or muscle cell in response to an external stimulus, specifically the propagation of an action potential.
Clinical neurology is a division of neuroscience that concentrates on the scientific study of fundamental mechanisms that include diseases and disorders of the brain and central nervous system. It finds to develop new ways of conceptualizing and diagnosing such disorders and ultimately of developing novel treatments.
Translational neurology is the field of study which applies basic neuroscience research to translate or develop into clinical applications and novel therapies for nervous system disorders. The field encompasses areas such as deep brain stimulation, brain machine interfaces, neurorehabilitation and the development of devices for the sensory nervous system such as the use of auditory implants, retinal implants, and electronic skins.
Neuroimmunology is a field that combines neuroscience, the study of the nervous system, and immunology, the study of the immune system. Neuroimmunologists find better understanding in the interactions of these two complex systems during development, homeostasis, and response to injuries.
Disorders are : Asperger syndrome, traumatic brain injury, communication, speech and language disorders, genetic disorders such as fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome, epilepsy, and fetal alcohol syndrome.
The very usual neurological infections are: An inflammation of the brain, Encephalitis, that can be generated by either bacteria or virus. Meningitis, the inflammation of the membranes that enclose the brain and spinal cord, can be generated by either bacteria or virus.